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Not until the Qing dynasty — do more finely grained distinctions appear in writing. Even then, discerning which ethnic groups are included in various classifications can be problematic.

This inconsistent usage of "Miao" makes it difficult to say for sure if Hmong and Mong people are always included in these historical writings.

Christian Culas and Jean Michaud note: "In all these early accounts, then, until roughly the middle of the 19th century, there is perpetual confusion about the exact identity of the population groups designated by the term Miao.

We should, therefore, be cautious with respect to the historical value of any early associations. Linguistic evidence, however, places Hmong and Mong people in the same regions of southern China that they inhabit today for at least the past 2, years.

The term 'Miao' is used today by the Chinese government to denote a group of linguistically and culturally related people including the Hmong, Hmu, Kho Xiong, and A Hmao.

The Hmong and Miao of China today believe they are one people with cultural and linguistic affiliations that transcend oceans and national boundaries.

The educated elites of the two groups maintain close transnational contacts with one another. The Hmong-Mien HM and Sino-Tibetan ST speaking groups are known as hill tribes in Thailand; they were the subject of the first studies to show an impact of patrilocality vs.

We find a striking difference between Hmong and IuMien Mien-speaking groups: the Hmong are genetically different from both the IuMien and all other Thai groups, whereas the IuMien are genetically more similar to other linguistic groups than to the Hmong.

In general, we find less of an impact of patrilocality vs. MSY variation than previous studies. A potential explanation is that the ancestors of Thai HM groups were patrilocal, while the ancestors of Thai ST groups were matrilocal.

Overall, these results attest to the impact of cultural practices on patterns of mtDNA vs. MSY variation. When Western authors came in contact with Hmong people, beginning in the 18th century, they referred to them in writing by ethnonyms assigned by the Chinese i.

Although "Meo" was an official term, it was often used as an insult against Hmong people, and it is considered to be derogatory.

Furthermore, the bill called for the use of oral histories and first hand accounts from Hmong people who had participated in the war and who were caught up in the aftermath.

Originally, the language of the bill mentioned only "Hmong" people, intending to include the entire community. A number of Mong Leng activists, led by Dr.

Paoze Thao Professor of Linguistics and Education at California State University, Monterey Bay , drew attention to the problems associated with omitting "Mong" from the language of the bill.

They noted that despite nearly equal numbers of Hmong Der and Mong Leng in the United States, resources are disproportionately directed toward the Hmong Der community.

This includes not only scholarly research, but also the translation of materials, potentially including curriculum proposed by the bill.

In the version that passed the assembly, "Hmong" was replaced by "Southeast Asians", a more broadly inclusive term.

Paoze Thao and some others feel strongly that "Hmong" can refer to only Hmong Der people and does not include "Mong" Leng people.

He feels that the usage of "Hmong" in reference to both groups perpetuates the marginalization of Mong Leng language and culture.

Thus, he advocates the usage of both "Hmong" and "Mong" when referring to the entire ethnic group. Gary Yia Lee a Hmong Der person , suggest that "Hmong" has been used for the past 30 years to refer to the entire community and that the inclusion of Mong Leng people is understood.

As a compromise alternative, multiple iterations of "Hmong" are proposed. A HMong theologian, Rev. Paul Joseph T. The ethnologist Jacques Lemoine has also begun to use the term H mong when referring to the entirety of the Hmong and Mong community.

Some non-Chinese Hmong advocate that the term Hmong be used not only for designating their dialect group, but also for the other Miao groups living in China.

They generally claim that the word "Miao" or "Meo" is a derogatory term, with connotations of barbarism, that probably should not be used at all.

The term was later adopted by Tai -speaking groups in Southeast Asia where it took on especially insulting associations for Hmong people despite its official status.

In modern China, the term "Miao" does not carry these negative associations and people of the various sub-groups that constitute this officially recognized nationality freely identify themselves as Miao or Chinese, typically reserving more specific ethnonyms for intra-ethnic communication.

During the struggle for political recognition after , it was actually members of these ethnic minorities who campaigned for identification under the umbrella term "Miao"—taking advantage of its familiarity and associations of historical political oppression.

Contemporary transnational interactions between Hmong in the West and Miao groups in China, following the Hmong diaspora, have led to the development of a global Hmong identity that includes linguistically and culturally related minorities in China that previously had no ethnic affiliation.

Such realignments of identity, while largely the concern of economically elite community leaders, reflect a trend towards the interchangeability of the terms "Hmong" and "Miao.

Linguistic data show that the Hmong of the Peninsula stem from the Miao of southern China as one among a set of ethnic groups belonging to the Hmong—Mien language family.

Vietnam , where their presence is attested from the late 18th century onwards and characterized with both assimilation, cooperation and hostility, is likely to be the first Indochinese country into which the Hmong migrated.

At the national census, there were 1,, Hmong living in Vietnam, the vast majority of them in the north of the country. The traditional trade in coffin wood with China and the cultivation of the Opium Poppy — both prohibited only in in Vietnam — long guaranteed a regular cash income.

Today, converting to cash cropping is the main economic activity. As in China and Laos, there is a certain degree of participation of Hmong in the local and regional administration.

In , the Hmong in Laos numbered , After decades of distant relations with the Lao kingdoms, closer relations between the French military and some Hmong on the Xieng Khouang plateau were set up after World War II.

There, a particular rivalry between members of the Lo and Ly clans developed into open enmity, also affecting those connected with them by kinship.

Clan leaders took opposite sides and as a consequence, several thousand Hmong participated in the fighting against the Pathet Lao Communists , while perhaps as many were enrolled in the People's Liberation Army.

As in Vietnam, numerous Hmong in Laos also genuinely tried to avoid getting involved in the conflict in spite of the extremely difficult material conditions under which they lived during wartime.

After the Communist victory, thousands of Hmong from Laos had to seek refuge abroad see Laos below. Approximately 30 percent of the Hmong left, although the only concrete figure we have is that of , Hmong from Laos and Vietnam together seeking refuge in Thailand up to In the Hmong in Thailand numbered , The presence of Hmong settlements there is documented from the end of the 19th century.

Initially, the Siamese paid little attention to them. But in the early s, the state suddenly took a number of initiatives aimed at establishing links.

Decolonization and nationalism were gaining momentum in the Peninsula and wars of independence were raging.

Armed opposition to the state in northern Thailand, triggered by outside influence, started in while here again, much Hmong refused to take sides in the conflict.

Communist guerrilla warfare stopped by as a result of an international concurrence of events that rendered it pointless.

Priority is since given by the Thai state to sedentarizing the mountain population, introducing commercially viable agricultural techniques and national education, with the aim of integrating these non-Tai animists within the national identity.

Myanmar most likely includes a modest number of Hmong perhaps around 2, but no reliable census has been conducted there recently.

As result of refugee movements in the wake of the Indochina Wars — , in particular, in Laos, the largest Hmong community to settle outside Asia went to the United States where approximately , individuals had already arrived by By the same date, 10, Hmong had migrated to France, including 1, in French Guyana.

Canada admitted individuals, while another went to Australia , to China , and to Argentina. Over the following years and until the definitive closure of the last refugee camps in Thailand in , additional numbers of Hmong have left Asia, but the definitive figures are still to be produced.

The Census counted , people solely of Hmong ancestry, and , persons of at least partial Hmong ancestry. Hmongs in Vietnam today are perceived very differently between various political organizations and changed throughout times.

The Hmongs of Vietnam are a small minority and because of this, their loyalty toward the Vietnamese state has also been under question.

Nonetheless, most Hmongs in Vietnam are fiercely loyal to the Vietnamese state, regardless of the current ideologies of the government [79] with only those minorities supportive of Hmong resistance in Laos and Cambodia.

These are mostly Christian Hmongs who have fallen under target and poverty strike by alienation of both three Indochinese governments, [80] since there has been no Hmong armed separatism in the country.

The Hmongs in Vietnam also receive cultural and political promotion from the government alike. In the early s, partially as a result of the North Vietnamese invasion of Laos , the U.

This "Secret Army" was organized into various mobile regiments and divisions, including various Special Guerrilla Units, all of whom were led by General Vang Pao.

Though their role was generally kept secret in the early stages of the conflict, they made great sacrifices to help the U. Thousands of economic and political refugees have resettled in Western countries in two separate waves.

Secret Army" in Laos during the Vietnam War. For many years, the Neo Hom resistance and political movement played a key role in resistance to the Vietnam People's Army in Laos following the U.

Vang Pao played a significant role in this movement. Small groups of Hmong people, many of the second or third generation descendants of former CIA soldiers, remain internally displaced in remote parts of Laos, in fear of government reprisals.

Faced with continuing military operations against them by the government and a scarcity of food, some groups have begun coming out of hiding, while others have sought asylum in Thailand and other countries.

Very few of the Lao refugees, however, were willing to return voluntarily. While some Hmong people returned to Laos voluntarily, with development assistance from UNHCR, coercive measures and forced repatriation was used to send thousands of Hmong back to the communist regime they had fled.

In the s, s and early s, The Center for Public Policy Analysis , a non-governmental public policy research organization, and its Executive Director, Philip Smith, played a key role in raising awareness in the U.

Congress and policy making circles in Washington, D. Congress as well as human rights organizations, conducted numerous research missions to the Hmong and Laotian refugee camps along the Mekong River in Thailand, as well as the Buddhist temple of Wat Tham Krabok.

Pobzeb Vang Vang Pobzeb , and later Vaughn Vang and other non-governmental organizations NGOs and human rights organizations joined the opposition to forced repatriation.

Although some accusations of forced repatriation were denied, [96] thousands of Hmong people refused to return to Laos. In , as the deadline for the closure of Thai refugee camps approached, and under mounting political pressure, the U.

The Thai government attempted to repatriate these refugees, but the Wat Tham Krabok Hmong refused to leave and the Lao government refused to accept them, claiming they were involved in the illegal drug trade and were of non-Lao origin.

In , following threats of forcible removal by the Thai government, the U. In and , thousands of Hmong fled from the jungles of Laos to a temporary refugee camp in the Thai province of Phetchabun.

On 4 June , as part of an investigation labeled " Operation Tarnished Eagle ," warrants were issued by U. The one non-Hmong person of the nine arrested, Harrison Jack , a West Point graduate and retired Army infantry officer, allegedly attempted to recruit Special Operations veterans to act as mercenaries.

In an effort to obtain the weapons, Jack allegedly met unknowingly with undercover U. On 15 June, the defendants were indicted by a grand jury and a warrant was also issued for the arrest of an 11th man, allegedly involved in the plot.

Simultaneous raids of the defendants' homes and work locations, involving over federal, state and local law enforcement officials, were conducted in approximately 15 cities in Central and Southern California in the US.

Multiple protest rallies in support of the suspects, designed to raise awareness of the treatment of Hmong peoples in the jungles of Laos, took place in California , Minnesota , Wisconsin , Alaska , and several of Vang Pao 's high-level supporters in the U.

Bush to pardon the defendants were not answered, presumably pending a conclusion of the large and then still-ongoing federal investigation.

On 18 September , the US federal government dropped all charges against Vang Pao, announcing in a release that the federal government was permitted to consider "the probable sentence or other consequences if the person is convicted.

The Hmong presence in Thailand dates back, according to most authors, to the turn of the 20th century when families migrated from China through Laos and Burma.

A relatively small population, they still settled dozens of villages and hamlets throughout the northern provinces. The Hmong were then registered by the state as the Meo hill tribe.

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